Naturalness is an old idea; it dates back at least to the 16th century and captures the intuition a useful description shouldn’t rely on improbable coincidences. Typical good examples for such coincidences, also known as “conspiracies,” are two independent parameters that almost cancel one another seemingly, or a small yet nonzero number extremely. Physicists believe that theories which do not have such coincidences, and are natural in this specific sense, are more promising than theories that are unnatural. Naturalness has its roots in human being experience.
If you go for a walk and encounter a delicately well-balanced stack of rocks, you conclude someone constructed it. This summary is dependent on your knowledge that rocks distributed throughout landscapes by erosion, weathering, deposition, and other geological procedures aren’t likely to end up on neat hemorrhoids. You know this reliably, because you have observed a great deal of rocks quite, meaning you have figures from which you can extract a likelihood. As the example ideally illustrates, naturalness is an excellent criterion in certain circumstances, when you yourself have statistics namely or at least means to derive statistics.
A solar system with ten planets in almost the same orbit is unlikely. A solar system with ten planets in almost the same plane isn’t. We know this both because we’ve noticed a complete lot of solar systems, and also because we can derive their likely distribution using the laws of nature discovered so far, and initial conditions that people can draw out from yet other observations. So that’s an incident where you may use arguments from naturalness. But this isn’t how quarrels from naturalness are found in theory-development today. In high-energy physics and some parts of cosmology, physicists use naturalness to choose a theory that they do not have – indeed cannot ever have – statistical distributions.
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The trouble is that they ask which ideals of variables in a theory are natural. But since we can see only one group of variables – the one which describes our universe – we have no chance of collecting data for the probability of obtaining a specific group of parameters.
Physicists use criteria from naturalness in any case. In such arguments, the probability distribution is unspecified but often implicitly assumed to be almost uniform over a period of size one. There is, however, no chance to justify this distribution; it is hence an unscientific assumption. This problem was clarified already in a 1994 paper by Anderson and Castano. The standard model of particle physics, or the mass of the Higgs-boson more specifically, is unnatural in the above-mentioned described way, which is known as unappealing presently.
This is why theorists invented new ideas to extend the Standard Model so that naturalness would be reestablished. Typically the most popular way to do this is by causing the typical Model supersymmetric, adding a lot of new contaminants thereby. THE TOP Hadron Collider (LHC), as several previous experiments, has not found any evidence for supersymmetric particles.